(Last updated on June 14th, 2022)
Making good use of leading lines in photography composition can help you create more interesting images.
Leading lines photography is about using strong lines that draw a viewer’s attention to the main subject. A photographer positions the lines within their frame so they lead to the subject and a viewer’s attention is drawn to it.
- What are Leading Lines in Photography?
- Making Good Use of Leading Lines in Photography
- How to Best Use Leading Lines in Your Compositions
- Three Steps to Help You Make Better Use of Leading Lines
- The Best Lens to Use for Leading Lines Photography
- The Two Main Uses of Leading Lines in Photography Composition
- Leading Lines in Photography Examples
- Practical Tips for Making the Best Use of Leading Lines
- Frequently Asked Questions
Composition is one of the key aspects of photography. Knowing the rules of composition and how to best use them means you will take better photos. Leading lines is one such photography composition ‘rule.’ The most effective way to apply any compositional rule is to practice using it. The more photos you take using leading lines, the stronger images you’ll be able to create.
In this photograph, the lines of the canyon are framed to help lead the viewer’s eye to the person walking in the stream.
What are Leading Lines in Photography?
Leading lines is one of the most common ‘rules’ of composition. It is when a photographer composes a picture so that one or more prominent lines lead the viewer’s eye through the image, usually to the main subject.
Well-used leading lines in a photograph help to strengthen it and hold a viewer’s attention for longer. When the main subject in a photo is relatively small in the composition, leading lines help draw more attention to it.
Making Good Use of Leading Lines in Photography
Every time you lift your camera to your eye, look for the lines within your frame. Once you start to look, you may be surprised at how often you can use them as leading lines. Begin to look for lines that you can incorporate into your photographs that lead toward your main subject. This not only strengthens the narrative of your photo but can also add depth to your pictures.
You can find leading lines to make use of all around you. Think of roads, railings, or rivers. Include any line, whether natural or artificial, as a leading line. It will draw attention to a subject placed at the end of the line or partway along the line. I often like to make environmental portraits that include leading lines.
Train tracks are often used to form lines that lead to a person. Position your subject carefully. Find the most interesting angle to photograph them from so the tracks draw attention to your model. This produces a strong composition.
You can see in this example that the photographer has used a worm’s eye view so the tracks lead to the main subject.
You can use just about any kind of line to lead a viewer’s eye through your pictures. How you position yourself and your subject in relation to the line determines how effective the technique is. As with any rule in photography, there is plenty of room to improvise and be creative. Always consider the overall look and feel of your photo. Don’t use leading lines or any other composition rule when it does not add value and interest to your photograph.
How to Best Use Leading Lines in Your Compositions
Any composition rule that is poorly applied tends to weaken a photograph. The best way to use leading lines in a photograph is when they appear natural and not forced. If you are new to photography and not sure how to compose a good picture, you must practice.
Learning how to make the best use of leading lines happens as you look for them and incorporate them into your compositions. Be purposeful and determined to make a certain number of photos, including leading lines. Each time you go out to take pictures for the next week, or the next month, make sure you look for lines to use.
Set a goal to make 20 or 50 photos with leading lines. Practice like this, and in no time at all, you’ll be creating compositions that include leading lines in natural and compelling ways. Review your photographs and compare them. Some will be better than others. Pick out the best and ask yourself why the technique of leading lines photography has more impact in these pictures than in others.
After spending a concentrated time taking photos and making good use of leading lines, you’ll instinctively know when you can best use them. This disciplined practice gives you the experience you cannot obtain by reading or watching videos.
The lines on the road and the edges of the road lead to the sign. The person’s arm also helps lead our eyes to the sign.
Three Steps to Help You Make Better Use of Leading Lines
- Look for leading lines, both artificial and natural
- Try different points of view when composing with them
- Use different focal lengths and compare how the leading lines rule works in each composition.
The Best Lens to Use for Leading Lines Photography
Wide-angle lenses are more popular for leading lines photography compositions. They tend to exaggerate the lines and make the technique more obvious. The wider lens you use, the more of a scene you can capture in a single image. In a sense, there’s more room to include leading lines in a photo when you use a wide-angle lens.
Positioning your camera close to the lines leading to your subject makes the effect more dramatic. This is more so when you have a wide-angle lens attached to your camera. Elements in photos taken with wide lenses tend to appear as though they are more spread out. Using leading lines helps enhance this sense of three-dimensional depth in your photographs.
But you don’t have to use a wide-angle lens when using leading lines to strengthen your compositions. A standard lens or telephoto lens can also be used. The effect may be more subtle with these lenses, but this will suit some compositions and subjects very well.
If you use a zoom lens, changing the focal length and experimenting with leading lines is very easy. Start with your lens set to the widest angle and compose using leading lines. Take a few photographs.
Then zoom in, so your lens is set about halfway through its focal length range. If you have an 18mm to 135mm kit lens, this will be about 60mm. Take some more photos using the same subject and the same set of lines.
Now repeat the photo with your lens zoomed right into the longest focal length.
Compare the photographs and look at which focal length has produced the most interesting results.
In this photo, the strong diagonal line leads to the person. The other more subtle lines of the stream and foliage also lead our eye to the person.
The Two Main Uses of Leading Lines in Photography Composition
Leading lines are most often used in photography for two purposes. The first, obviously, is to draw the viewer’s eye to your main subject. The second is to add depth to an image.
Without a subject somewhere along the lines, they are not leading anywhere. They are then not considered leading lines but fit into a different compositional rule.
In this image, the train tracks serve as leading lines because they draw your eye to the on-coming train.
With the train cropped from the composition, the lines are not leading anywhere. They are a simple pair of diagonal lines.
You will also notice the effect of depth created by the learning lines in the first photo. This is missing in the cropped version. The lines don’t do much to emphasize depth and the photo looks quite flat.
Being aware of both these effects of leading lines will help you use them more effectively in your compositions.
When leading lines are also converging lines, the three-dimensional illusion of depth created in the photograph is stronger. Lines that are horizontal or vertical and run from one edge of the frame to another tend not to enhance the sense of depth in a photograph. So, leading lines do not always add depth, but, by definition, they must lead to something.
Leading Lines in Photography Examples
Examples of leading lines can be:
- Train tracks
- Walls and fences
- Waves and shorelines
- Lamp posts and power poles
Practical Tips for Making the Best Use of Leading Lines
Here are some practical tips for making the best use of leading lines in your photographs.
Tip #1: Decide Where You Want the Lines to Lead to
What is the main subject of your photograph? This is where you want your leading lines to draw attention. It might be a person, an object, or something in nature. Whatever you most want viewers to look at when they see your photo, use the lines to lead to that thing. Make sure it either intersects with the line or lines or is near to them at some point.
Tip #2: Position Yourself Close to the Lines
For the greatest impact, position yourself close to the lines. Compose so the lines appear to enter your frame from a corner. With the camera close to the lines this will create the most drama and have the most impact. Using a wide-angle lens and getting in close to the lines will make the effect even more impressive.
Tip #3: Look for Distinctive Lines and Implied Lines
The lines in the example photos I’ve included above are pretty clear and easy to see. This is generally how leading lines are used in photography composition. But you can also use implied lines to lead a viewer’s eye to your subject.
An example of an implied line is when a person or animal is looking at something. Their gaze captures yours and draws your attention to what they are looking at. Another common example of this would be a photo of a photographer, as in the image below.
Tip #4: Make Your Own Leading Lines
When you want to practice leading lines photography and don’t have any lines to include, you can make your own.
One of the easiest ways to do this is to point at something. Frame your composition to include your arm and hand outstretched. This is most effective when you have a wide-angle lens. Take care to use a fast enough shutter speed. You’ll be more likely to move your camera when your hand is stretched out.
Tip #5: Position Your Subject in the Best Spot
When you can control your subject, make sure to position it, or them, in the best spot. Think about how the leading line will look most effective in relation to how you frame it with your subject. When you can move a subject, you have more options of where you take the photo from and how you position your subject.
In this example, the photographer has positioned the businessman walking to make the most of the leading lines in the building. They were well-positioned and utilized a low point of view.
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With any composition rule, it is best to be intentional about how you use it. Leading lines in photography are most effective when you incorporate them into your picture in a meaningful way.
Practice using leading lines. Make lots and lots of photos using this technique until you are confident that you know what to do. Think about how important the subject is in your image and how the lines help to enhance it. Always make sure that the lines draw attention to the subject.
As you practice, don’t be afraid to experiment with this technique. It can be fun to try different ways of framing leading lines. Use your camera in a horizontal position and a vertical position for each subject you photograph. Also, try a Dutch tilt. This is when you purposefully hold your camera at an angle so the horizon is not straight.
The more you experiment and practice, the better you will get at using leading lines in your photographs.
Frequently Asked Questions
Here are some answers to the most common questions about how best to use leading lines in photographs.
Leading lines are any lines in your photos that draw the viewer’s attention to your main subject. This rule is best achieved by positioning the camera lens and subject so one or more lines in the composition intersect with the main subject.
You will often see leading lines starting in the lower half of a photograph and rising into the image. This tends to draw a viewer’s eye up and deeper into the composition.
The main three types of lines in photos are Horizontal lines, Vertical lines, and Diagonal lines. All of these types of lines can be used as leading lines. You can also use curved lines, converging lines, and implied lines to lead a viewer’s eye through an image.
Kevin Landwer-Johan is a professional photographer, photography teacher, and author. He has been passionate about photography for as long as he can remember.
Kevin began his career in newspaper photography in the late 1980s and worked in editorial photography for many years. After this he interned with a commercial photographer, learning many new skills. From there he freelanced, covering many different genres of photography ever since.
He ran his own award-winning photography business before moving to Thailand in 2002. Since then Kevin has continued to work in photography and also moved into video production. For the first ten years of his life in Thailand, he focused on producing media content, both photos, and videos, for non-profit organizations. He funded these efforts primarily through the sale of his stock photography and videos. In more recent years Kevin has discovered a great enjoyment in teaching photography.
He also runs in-person workshops, develops online courses, writes, and creates videos about photography.